Posts Tagged ‘World Bank’

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

More commonly known as the ‘World Bank’, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is one of five institutions that make up the World Bank Group. The World Bank provides loans, loan guarantees, risk management products and advice services. Most of its funds are obtained through the sale of bonds on international capital markets, including […]

Equator Principles

The Equator Principles are a voluntary framework for determining environmental and social risks associated with project finance. They are based on the ‘Performance Standards’ of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the private sector arm of the World Bank. The Equator Principles have been adopted by over 70 banks for transactions over $10 million, although several […]

Currency swap

Currency swaps are a mechanism to exchange debt denominated in different currencies. They were developed to circumvent cross-border capital controls, which set limits on the trade in foreign currency (as well as underpinning certain designs for financial transaction taxes).  The first currency swap took place in 1981 between the World Bank and IBM. The Bank […]


A bond is an IOU (‘I owe you’), a piece of paper or record on a computer screen that acknowledges a debt and agrees in advance how long it will take to pay back, and at what interest rate. When the alloted time (which can range from six months to over 10 years) is up, then […]


Adaptation refers to measures that lessen the impacts of climate change on individuals, companies, institutions or society as a whole. In this broad sense, adaptation is sometimes used to describe any of the risks and opportunities that companies face in response to climate change. In policy discussions, however, the term is used more narrowly to […]